To see the references for the Chapter of interest, please click on the links below.
All references are listed alphabetically within their chapter.

References for Plant Powered Protein


References for Chapter 1. Plant and Animal Protein: Setting the Stage

Agriculture Fairness Alliance.

Aubrey A. Does Subsidizing Crops We’re Told To Eat Less Of Fatten Us Up? 2016.

Blakely, T et al. The effect of food taxes and subsidies on population health and health costs: A modelling study. Lancet Public Health 2020, 5, e404–e413.

Brittanica. Protein.

Carpenter KJ. A Short History of Nutritional Science: Part 3 (1912–1944), The Journal of Nutrition. 2003; 133(10):3023–3032.

Centers for Disease Control. Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Safer and Healthier Foods. MMWR Weekly. Oct. 15, 1999;48(40):905-913.

Chiles RM, Fitzgerald AM. Why is meat so important in Western history and culture? A genealogical critique of biophysical and political-economic explanations. Agric Hum Values. 2018. 35:1–17.

Government of Canada. 2021.

Grandjean, A.C. Dietary intake data collection: Challenges and limitations. Nutr.Rev. 2012, 70 (Suppl. 2), S101–S104.  

Katz DL, Doughty KN, Geagan K, Jenkins DA, Gardner CD. Perspective: The Public Health Case for Modernizing the Definition of Protein Quality. Adv Nutr. 2019;10(5):755-764.

Kenneth J. Carpenter, A Short History of Nutritional Science: Part 3 (1912–1944), The Journal of Nutrition. 2003; 133(10):3023–3032.

Kristof N. The Unhealthy Meat Market. New York Times. March 12, 2014.

Lincicome S. Examining America’s Farm Subsidy Problem. Cato Institute. December 18, 2020.

Mozaffarian D, Rosenberg I, Uauy R. History of modern nutrition science-implications for current research, dietary guidelines, and food policy. British Medical Journal. 2018;361:k2392.

Nation Rising.

New York Times

Rabb M. Cargill CEO Predicts Plant-Based Protein Will Cut Into the Meat Market

The Beet. 2021.

Rajsic P. Cartels and Subsidies in Canadian Agriculture. 2014. 

Rosenfeld DL, Tomiyama AJ. Gender differences in meat consumption and openness to vegetarianism. Appetite. 2021 Jun 22;166:

Rosenfeld DL. Psychology of Plant-Based Nutrition.

Saffarans G. A Chicken in Every Pot! CEO Blog. 2017.

Semba RD. The rise and fall of protein malnutrition in global health. Ann Nutr Metab. 2016;69(2):79-88.

Siegel KR et al. The contribution of subsidized food commodities to total energy intake among US adults.

 Public Health Nutr. 2016 Jun;19(8):1348-57.

Sumner D.A. Agricultural Subsidy Programs.

Suzuki, U. Shimamura T. Active constituent of rice grits preventing bird polyneuritis. Tokyo Kagaku Kaishi. 1911; 32 (1): 4-7, 144-146, 335-358. 

Ten Vegan Athletes on Why They Went Plant-Based.

  1. S. National Archives and Record Administration. Food Guides. 2018.

USA Facts

Whitney LD et al. Consumption of Foods Derived from Subsidized Crops Remains Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk: An Update on the Evidence Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2014. Nutrients. 12(11): 3244.

World Health Organization. Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. WHO Technical Report Series 797. Geneva. 1990.

References for Chapter 2. What is Protein and Why Does it Matter?

Allès B et al. Comparison of Sociodemographic and Nutritional Characteristics between Self-Reported Vegetarians, Vegans, and Meat-Eaters from the NutriNet-Sante Study. Nutrients. 2017 Sep 15;9(9):1023.

Berryman CE et al. Protein intake trends and conformity with the Dietary Reference Intakes in the United States: analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2014. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018 Aug 1;108(2):405-413.

Craddock JC et al. Limitations with the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) with Special Attention to Plant-Based Diets: a Review. Curr Nutr Rep. 2021 Mar;10(1):93-98.

Delimaris I. Adverse Effects Associated with Protein Intake above the Recommended Dietary Allowance for Adults. Hindawi International Scholarly Research Articles. Nutrition Volume 2013, Article ID 126929, 6 pages

Drulyte D et al. The Effect of Processing on Digestion of Legume Proteins. Foods 2019, 8, 224.

Erba D et al. Effect of sprouting on nutritional quality of pulses. Int J Food Sci Nutr.  2019 Feb;70(1):30-40.

Federation of the American Societies for Experimental Biology, Life Sciences Research Office 1992. Safety of amino acids used as dietary supplements. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. FDA Contract No. 223–88–2124, Task No. 8.

Han H et al. Oligosaccharide Content and Composition of Legumes and Their Reduction by Soaking, Cooking, Ultrasound, and High Hydrostatic Pressure. 2006. Cereal Chem. 83(4):428–433

Mariotti F et al. Dietary Protein and Amino Acids in Vegetarian Diets—A Review. Nutrients. 2019 Nov; 11(11): 2661.

Melina V et al. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016 Dec;116 (12):1970-1980. 

Messina M et al. No Difference Between the Effects of Supplementing With Soy Protein Versus Animal Protein on Gains in Muscle Mass and Strength in Response to Resistance Exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2018 Nov 1;28(6):674-685.

Nagra M and Hill S. Plant Proof – Evidence based nutrition

Pasiakos s et al. Sources and Amounts of Animal, Dairy, and Plant Protein Intake of US Adults in 2007–2010. Nutrients. 2015 Aug; 7(8): 7058–7069.

Reynaud Y et al. True ileal amino acid digestibility and digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAASs) of plant-based protein foods. Food Chem. 2021 Feb 15;338:128020

Rizzo N et al. Nutrient Profiles of Vegetarian and Non Vegetarian Dietary Patterns. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013 Dec; 113(12): 1610–1619.

Schaafsma G. The Protein Digestibility–Corrected Amino Acid Score. 2000. J Nutr. 130, (7):1865S–1867S

Schaafsma G. Advantages and limitations of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) as a method for evaluating protein quality in human diets. Br J Nutr. 2012 Aug;108 Suppl 2:S333-6

Sobiecki J et al. High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Oxford study. Nutr Res. 2016. 36(5) 464-477.

Thorpe DL et al. Dietary patterns and hip fracture in the Adventist Health Study 2: combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation mitigate increased hip fracture risk among vegans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2021 Aug 2;114(2):488-495.

U.S. National Library of Medicine,

Wikipedia. Insulin structure.

References for Chapter 3. Amino Acids: The Building Blocks

Beck K et al. Role of nutrition in performance enhancement and postexercise recovery. Open Access J Sports Med. 2015; 6: 259–267.

Chapman s et al. Does Protein Supplementation Support Adaptations to Arduous Concurrent Exercise Training? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis with Military Based Applications. Nutrients. 2021 Apr 23;13(5):1416.

Chaturvedi S et al. Exploiting methionine restriction for cancer treatment. Biochem Pharmacol. 2018 Aug;154:170-173

Cudmore D. The 30 Best Vegan Sources of Leucine. 2021

Deldicque  L. Potential harmful effects of dietary supplements in sports medicine. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2016 Nov;19(6):439-445. 

Ganapathy A et al. Nutrition and Sarcopenia—What Do We Know? Nutrients. 2020 Jun; 12(6): 1755.

Gardner CD et al. Maximizing the intersection of human health and the health of the environment with regard to the amount and type of protein produced and consumed in the United States. Nutr Rev. 2019 Apr 1;77(4):197-215.

Harmack L. Director of NCC, Nutrition Database System for Research at the University of Minnesota  Sept 15, 2021

Holeček M. Branched-chain amino acids in health and disease: metabolism, alterations in blood plasma, and as supplements. Nutrition & Metabolism (2018) 15:33

Jäger, al. International society of sports nutrition position stand: Protein and Exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017. 14, 1–25.

Kersick CM et al. International society of sports nutrition position stand: nutrient timing. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017 Aug 29;14:33.

Maher TJ. Safety Concerns Regarding Supplemental Amino Acids: Results of a Study. In Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. National Academy of Sciences. 1994.

Melina V et al. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016 Dec;116(12):1970-1980. 

Messina M et al. No Difference Between the Effects of Supplementing With Soy Protein Versus Animal Protein on Gains in Muscle Mass and Strength in Response to Resistance Exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2018 Nov 1;28(6):674-685.

National Institutes of Health. Dietary Supplements for Exercise and Athletic Performance

Santos CS et al. Isolated branched-chain amino acid intake and muscle protein synthesis in humans: a biochemical review. Einstein Journal (Sao Paulo) 2019 Sep 5;17(3):eRB4898.

Sources for Table 3.1. ESHA ( and : ;;

Sun L et al. Soya milk exerts different effects on plasma amino acid responses and incretin hormone secretion compared with cows’ milk in healthy, young men. Cambridge  2016.

Wu G. Functional amino acids in nutrition and health. Amino Acids. 2013 Sep;45(3):407-11

References for Chapter 4. Which Foods Provide Protein?

Abbasslou Y et al. Nucleotide Supplementation to Whole Milk Has Beneficial Effects on Post-Weaning Holstein Calf Performance. Animals 2021, 11, 218.

ESHA Food Processor Nutrition Analysis Software.

Rosenberger K et al. The effect of milk allowance on behavior and weight gains in dairy calves. J Dairy Sci. 2017 Jan;100(1):504-512.

U.S. Department of Agriculture:

Shivley CB et al. Preweaned heifer management on US dairy operations: Part VI. Factors associated with average daily gain in preweaned dairy heifer calves. . J Dairy Sci. 2018 Oct:101(10):9245-9258.

References for Chapter 5. The Environmental Costs of Protein Choices.

Althor, G., Watson, J. E., & Fuller, R. A. (2016). Global mismatch between greenhouse gas emissions and the burden of climate change. Scientific reports6(1), 1-6. Available for free here:

Bengtsson, J., Bullock, J. M., Egoh, B., Everson, C., Everson, T., O’Connor, T., … & Lindborg, R. (2019). Grasslands—more important for ecosystem services than you might think. Ecosphere, 10(2), e02582. Available for free here:

Benton, T. G., Bieg, C., Harwatt, H., Pudasaini, R., & Wellesley, L. (2021). Food system impacts on biodiversity loss. Three levers for food system transformation in support of nature. Chatham House, London. Available free from here:

Cassidy, E. S., West, P. C., Gerber, J. S., & Foley, J. A. (2013). Redefining agricultural yields: from tonnes to people nourished per hectare. Environmental Research Letters, 8(3), 034015. Available for free from here:—————————

Dalin, C., & Outhwaite, C. L. (2019). Impacts of global food systems on biodiversity and water: the vision of two reports and future aims. One Earth, 1(3), 298-302. Available for free here:

D’Odorico, P., Chiarelli, D. D., Rosa, L., Bini, A., Zilberman, D., & Rulli, M. C. (2020). The global value of water in agriculture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(36), 21985-21993. Available for free here:

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2006). Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options. Available for free here:

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2013). Tackling Climate Change Through Livestock. Available for free here:

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2016): AQUASTAT – FAO’s Global Information System on Water and Agriculture. Available from:

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2017). Land & Water – Agriculture: cause and victim of water pollution, but change is possible. Available from:,third%20main%20source%20in%20lakes.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2017). Water pollution from agriculture: a global review. Available free here:

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2020). The State of the World’s Forests. Available for free here:

Goodland & Anhang (2009). Livestock and Climate Change: What if the key actors in climate change are cows, pigs and chickens? World Watch 22(6):10-19.

Harvey, (2019). “One climate crisis disaster happening every week, UN warns.” The Guardian. Available for free here:

Hayek, M. N., & Garrett, R. D. (2018). Nationwide shift to grass-fed beef requires larger cattle population. Environmental Research Letters, 13(8), 084005. Available for free here:

Islam, N., & Winkel, J. (2017). Climate change and social inequality. DESA Working Paper No. 152. Available for free here:

McCartney & Mehta (2021). Climate Change Monitoring and Impacts Using Remote Sensing and Modeled Data. NASA. Retrieved from:

Mumenthaler (2021). The economic case for net zero is irresistible. Swiss Re Institute. Retrieved from: Also see, the report this article is based on available free for download from the Swiss Re Institute. Swiss Re Institute (2021). The economics of climate change: no action is not an option.

Poore, J., & Nemecek, T. (2018). Reducing food’s environmental impacts through producers and consumers. Science360(6392), 987-992. Available for free here: Please also see Joseph Poore’s website here: for more information.

Rao (2020). Animal Agriculture is the Leading Cause of Climate Change – A Position Paper. Journal of Ecological Society. Volume 32-33. Available for free here:

Richie & Moser (2021). Drivers of Deforestation. Our World in Data. Available for free from here:

Richie & Moser (2021). Forests and Deforestation: Soy. Our World in Data. Available from:

Richie (2017). How much of the world’s land would we need in order to feed the global population with the average diet of a given country? Our World in Data. Available free from here:

Ritchie (2019). Half of all the world’s habitable land is used for agriculture. Our World in Data. Available for free from:,roads%20and%20other%20human%20infrastructure. For more information on this data, see the paper cited: Ellis, E. C., Klein Goldewijk, K., Siebert, S., Lightman, D., & Ramankutty, N. (2010). Anthropogenic transformation of the biomes, 1700 to 2000. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 19(5), 589-606.

Sewall (2020). Removing the Meat Subsidy: Our cognitive dissonance around animal agriculture. Journal of International Affairs. Available for free here: For more in-depth information on the link between poverty and agriculture see the World Agriculture Towards 2015/2030 Summary Report published by the FAO here:

The CDP’s (formerly the Climate Disclosure Project) (2021). 2020 Global Supply Chain Report. Available for free here:

The United Nations Environmental Programme (2021). Adaptation Gap Report. Available free here:

U.S. Government Accountability Office (2017). Climate Change: Information on Potential Economic Effects Could Help Guide Federal Efforts to Reduce Fiscal Exposure. Retrieved from:

United Nations (2021). SDG Goals – Clear Water and Sanitation: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. Available from:,by%20over%202%20per%20cent.

Willett, W., Rockström, J., Loken, B., Springmann, M., Lang, T., Vermeulen, S., … & Murray, C. J. (2019). Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT–Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems. The Lancet, 393(10170), 447-492. Available for free here:

Further Suggested Readings for The Environmental Costs of Protein Choices

Aan Den Toorn, S. I., Worrell, E., & Van Den Broek, M. A. (2020). Meat, dairy, and more: Analysis of material, energy, and greenhouse gas flows of the meat and dairy supply chains in the EU28 for 2016. Journal of Industrial Ecology24(3), 601-614. Retrieved from:

Arrieta, E. M., & González, A. D. (2019). Energy and carbon footprints of food: Investigating the effect of cooking. Sustainable Production and Consumption19, 44-52. Retrieved from:

Bähr, C. C. (2015). Greenhouse gas taxes on meat products: a legal perspective. Transnational Environmental Law4(1), 153-179. Retrieved from:

Bar-On, Y. M., Phillips, R., & Milo, R. (2018). The biomass distribution on Earth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences115(25), 6506-6511. Retrieved from:

Batchelor, J. L., Ripple, W. J., Wilson, T. M., & Painter, L. E. (2015). Restoration of riparian areas following the removal of cattle in the northwestern Great Basin. Environmental management, 55, 930-942. Retrieved from:

Beschta, R. L., Donahue, D. L., DellaSala, D. A., Rhodes, J. J., Karr, J. R., O’Brien, M. H., … & Deacon Williams, C. (2013). Adapting to climate change on western public lands: addressing the ecological effects of domestic, wild, and feral ungulates. Environmental Management, 51, 474-491. Retrieved from:

Buckley Biggs, N. (2022). Drivers and constraints of land use transitions on Western grasslands: insights from a California mountain ranching community. Landscape Ecology, 1-21. Retrieved from:

Chai, B. C., van der Voort, J. R., Grofelnik, K., Eliasdottir, H. G., Klöss, I., & Perez-Cueto, F. J. (2019). Which diet has the least environmental impact on our planet? A systematic review of vegan, vegetarian and omnivorous diets. Sustainability11(15), 4110. Retrieved from:

Chen, C., Chaudhary, A., & Mathys, A. (2019). Dietary change scenarios and implications for environmental, nutrition, human health and economic dimensions of food sustainability. Nutrients11(4), 856.

Chuong, J., Huxley, J., Spotswood, E. N., Nichols, L., Mariotte, P., & Suding, K. N. (2016). Cattle as dispersal vectors of invasive and introduced plants in a California annual grassland. Rangeland ecology & management, 69(1), 52-58. Retrieved from:

Djekic, I., & Tomasevic, I. (2016). Environmental impacts of the meat chain–Current status and future perspectives. Trends in Food Science & Technology54, 94-102. Retrieved from:

Dowler, C. (2020). Demand for animal feed is driving the hazardous pesticide industry, data reveals. Greenpeace. Retrieved from:

Dyer, J. A., Worth, D. E., Vergé, X. P. C., & Desjardins, R. L. (2020). Impact of recommended red meat consumption in Canada on the carbon footprint of Canadian livestock production. Journal of Cleaner Production266, 121785.

Eshel, G., Stainier, P., Shepon, A., & Swaminathan, A. (2019). Environmentally optimal, nutritionally sound, protein and energy conserving plant based alternatives to US meat. Scientific reports9(1), 1-11. Retrieved from:

Eisen, M. B., & Brown, P. O. (2022). Rapid global phaseout of animal agriculture has the potential to stabilize greenhouse gas levels for 30 years and offset 68 percent of CO2 emissions this century. PLoS Climate, 1(2), e0000010. Retrieved from:

Emel, J., & Neo, H. (2010). Killing for profit: Global livestock industries and their socio-ecological implications. In Global political ecology (pp. 81-97). Routledge. Retrieved from:

Ernstoff, A., Tu, Q., Faist, M., Del Duce, A., Mandlebaum, S., & Dettling, J. (2019). Comparing the environmental impacts of meatless and meat-containing meals in the United States. Sustainability11(22), 6235. Retrieved from:

Farrell, K. A., Harpole, W. S., Stein, C., Suding, K. N., & Borer, E. T. (2015). Grassland arthropods are controlled by direct and indirect interactions with cattle but are largely unaffected by plant provenance. PLoS One, 10(7), e0129823. Retrieved from:

Filazzola, A., Brown, C., Dettlaff, M. A., Batbaatar, A., Grenke, J., Bao, T., … & Cahill Jr, J. F. (2020). The effects of livestock grazing on biodiversity are multi‐trophic: a meta‐analysis. Ecology Letters, 23(8), 1298-1309. Retrieved from:

Forrester, T. R., Green, D. J., McKibbin, R., & Bishop, C. A. (2017). Evaluating the efficacy of seasonal grazing and livestock exclusion as restoration tools for birds in riparian habitat of the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada. Restoration Ecology, 25(5), 768-777.

Freilich, J. E., Emlen, J. M., Duda, J. J., Freeman, D. C., & Cafaro, P. J. (2003). Ecological effects of ranching: a six-point critique. BioScience53(8), 759-765. Retrieved from:

Fresán, U., & Sabaté, J. (2019). Vegetarian diets: planetary health and its alignment with human health. Advances in nutrition10(Supplement_4), S380-S388.

González-García, S., Esteve-Llorens, X., Moreira, M. T., & Feijoo, G. (2018). Carbon footprint and nutritional quality of different human dietary choices. Science of the total environment644, 77-94.

Jennings, R et al. Five U.S. Dietary Patterns and Their Relationship to Land Use, Water Use, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Implications for Future Food Security. Nutrients. 2023 Jan 1;15(1):215.

Haddow, C & Bings, B. (2016). Livestock grazing and habitat needs of grassland nesting birds. Forest and Range Evaluation Program Extension Note #36. Retrieved from:

Hansen, S., Messer, T., Mittelstet, A., Berry, E. D., Bartelt-Hunt, S., & Abimbola, O. (2020). Escherichia coli concentrations in waters of a reservoir system impacted by cattle and migratory waterfowl. Science of The Total Environment, 705, 135607. Retrieved from:

Harrison, R. B., Jones, W. M., Clark, D., Heise, B. A., & Fraser, L. H. (2017). Livestock grazing in intermountain depressional wetlands: effects on breeding waterfowl. Wetlands Ecology and Management, 25, 471-484. Retrieved from:

Hayek, M. N., Harwatt, H., Ripple, W. J., & Mueller, N. D. (2021). The carbon opportunity cost of animal-sourced food production on land. Nature Sustainability, 4(1), 21-24. Retrieved from:

Kellert, S. R., Black, M., Rush, C. R., & Bath, A. J. (1996). Human culture and large carnivore conservation in North America. Conservation Biology, 10(4), 977-990. Retrieved from:

Kelley, A. (2018). The ecological and human-centered benefits of wolf reintroduction to yellowstone national park. Sloth, 4(1). Retrieved from:

Kc, K. B., Dias, G. M., Veeramani, A., Swanton, C. J., Fraser, D., Steinke, D., … & Fraser, E. D. (2018). When too much isn’t enough: Does current food production meet global nutritional needs?. PloS one13(10), e0205683. Retrieved from:

Laborde, D., Mamun, A., Martin, W., Piñeiro, V., & Vos, R. (2021). Agricultural subsidies and global greenhouse gas emissions. Nature communications12(1), 2601. Retrieved from:

Macon, D. (2020). Paying for the presence of predators: an evolving approach to compensating ranchers. Rangelands42(2), 43-52. Retrieved from:

McLeod-Kilmurray, H. (2012). Commoditizing nonhuman animals and their consumers: Industrial livestock production, animal welfare, and ecological justice. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 32(1), 71-85. Retrieved from:

Miller, R. S., Sweeney, S. J., Slootmaker, C., Grear, D. A., Di Salvo, P. A., Kiser, D., & Shwiff, S. A. (2017). Cross-species transmission potential between wild pigs, livestock, poultry, wildlife, and humans: implications for disease risk management in North America. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 1-14. Retrieved from:

Millward, D. J., & Garnett, T. (2010). Plenary Lecture 3 Food and the planet: nutritional dilemmas of greenhouse gas emission reductions through reduced intakes of meat and dairy foods: Conference on ‘Over-and undernutrition: challenges and approaches’. Proceedings of the nutrition society69(1), 103-118. Retrieved from:

Nelson, M. E., Hamm, M. W., Hu, F. B., Abrams, S. A., & Griffin, T. S. (2016). Alignment of healthy dietary patterns and environmental sustainability: a systematic review. Advances in Nutrition, 7(6), 1005-1025. Retrieved from:

Nijdam, D., Rood, T., & Westhoek, H. (2012). The price of protein: Review of land use and carbon footprints from life cycle assessments of animal food products and their substitutes. Food policy37(6), 760-770. Retrieved from:

O’Callaghan, P., Kelly‐Quinn, M., Jennings, E., Antunes, P., O’Sullivan, M., Fenton, O., & Huallachain, D. O. (2019). The environmental impact of cattle access to watercourses: A review. Journal of Environmental Quality, 48(2), 340-351. Retrieved from:

Proulx, G., & Rodtka, D. (2015). Predator bounties in Western Canada cause animal suffering and compromise wildlife conservation efforts. Animals, 5(4), 1034-1046. Retrieved from:

Ritchie, H. & Roser, M. (2022). Environmental Impacts of Food Production. Our World in Data. Retrieved from:

Robinson, D. & Drissi, S. (2021). Rethinking food systems. United Nations Environment Programme. Retrieved from:

Sanchez-Sabate, R., & Sabaté, J. (2019). Consumer attitudes towards environmental concerns of meat consumption: A systematic review. International journal of environmental research and public health16(7), 1220. Retrieved from:

Sarasola, J. H., Zanón-Martínez, J. I., Costán, A. S., & Ripple, W. J. (2016). Hypercarnivorous apex predator could provide ecosystem services by dispersing seeds. Scientific reports6(1), 19647. Retrieved from:

Scarborough, P., Appleby, P. N., Mizdrak, A., Briggs, A. D., Travis, R. C., Bradbury, K. E., & Key, T. J. (2014). Dietary greenhouse gas emissions of meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the UK. Climatic change125(2), 179-192. Retrieved from:

Shepon, A., Eshel, G., Noor, E., & Milo, R. (2018). The opportunity cost of animal based diets exceeds all food losses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(15), 3804-3809.

Retrieved from:

Sievers, M., Hale, R., & Morrongiello, J. R. (2017).Do trout respond to riparian change? A meta‐analysis with implications for restoration and management. Freshwater Biology, 62(3), 445-457. Retrieved from:

Swain, M., Blomqvist, L., McNamara, J., & Ripple, W. J. (2018). Reducing the environmental impact of global diets. Science of the Total Environment, 610, 1207-1209. Retrieved from:

Thapa‐Magar, K. B., Davis, T. S., & Fernández‐Giménez, M. E. (2022). A meta‐analysis of the effects of habitat aridity, evolutionary history of grazing and grazing intensity on bee and butterfly communities worldwide. Ecological Solutions and Evidence3(2), e12141. Retrieved from:

Thapa-Magar, K. B., Davis, T. S., & Kondratieff, B. (2020). Livestock grazing is associated with seasonal reduction in pollinator biodiversity and functional dispersion but cheatgrass invasion is not: Variation in bee assemblages in a multi-use shortgrass prairie. PloS one, 15(12), e0237484. Retrieved from:

Tilman, D., Clark, M., Williams, D. R., Kimmel, K., Polasky, S., & Packer, C. (2017). Future threats to biodiversity and pathways to their prevention. Nature, 546(7656), 73-81. Retrieved from:

Tschumi, M., Ekroos, J., Hjort, C., Smith, H. G., & Birkhofer, K. (2018). Predation‐mediated ecosystem services and disservices in agricultural landscapes. Ecological Applications, 28(8), 2109-2118. Retrieved from:

Weindl, I., Lotze-Campen, H., Popp, A., Müller, C., Havlík, P., Herrero, M., … & Rolinski, S. (2015). Livestock in a changing climate: production system transitions as an adaptation strategy for agriculture. Environmental Research Letters, 10(9), 094021. Retrieved from:

Wick, A. F., Geaumont, B. A., Sedivec, K. K., & Hendrickson, J. (2016). Grassland degradation. Biological and Environmental Hazards, Risks, and Disasters. Elsevier, 257-276. Retrieved from:

Yang, X., Chen, J., Shen, Y., Dong, F., & Chen, J. (2020). Global negative effects of livestock grazing on arbuscular mycorrhizas: a meta-analysis. Science of the Total Environment708, 134553. Retrieved from:

Yip, C. S. C., & Fielding, R. (2018). Cradle-to-cooked-edible-meat analysis of greenhouse gas emissions. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems112, 291-302.

References for Chapter 6. Protein in Health and Disease

Blachier F, Beaumont M, Portune KJ, et al. High-protein diets for weight management: Interactions with the intestinal microbiota and consequences for gut health. A position paper by the my new gut study group. Clin Nutr. 2019;38(3):1012-1022. 

Budhathoki S, Sawada N, Iwasaki M, et al; Japan Public Health Center–based Prospective Study Group. Association of Animal and Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in a Japanese Cohort. JAMA Intern Med. 2019;179(11):1509-1518.

David LA, Maurice CF, Carmody RN, et al. Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome. Nature. 2014;505(7484):559-63.

Diallo A, Deschasaux M, Latino-Martel P, et al. Red and processed meat intake and cancer risk: Results from the prospective NutriNet-Santé cohort study. Int J Cancer. 2018;142(2):230-237. 

FAQ: Processed Meat and Cancer – American Institute for Cancer Research (

GBD 2017 Diet Collaborators. Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet. 2019;393(10184):1958-1972. 

Huang J, Liao LM, Weinstein SJ, et al. Association Between Plant and Animal Protein Intake and Overall and Cause-Specific Mortality. JAMA Intern Med. 2020;180(9):1173-1184. 

Kim SR, Kim K, Lee SA, et al. Effect of Red, Processed, and White Meat Consumption on the Risk of Gastric Cancer: An Overall and Dose Response Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2019;11(4):826.

Lander EM, Wertheim BC, Koch SM, et al. Vegetable protein intake is associated with lower gallbladder disease risk: Findings from the Women’s Health Initiative prospective cohort. Prev Med. 2016;88:20-6. 

Levine ME, Suarez JA, Brandhorst S, et al. Low protein intake is associated with a major reduction in IGF-1, cancer, and overall mortality in the 65 and younger but not older population. Cell Metab. 2014;19(3):407-17.

Liao LM, Loftfield E, Etemadi A, et al. Substitution of dietary protein sources in relation to colorectal cancer risk in the NIH-AARP cohort study. Cancer Causes Control. 2019;30(10):1127-1135.

Malik VS, Li Y, Tobias DK, Pan A, Hu FB. Dietary Protein Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in US Men and Women. Am J Epidemiol. 2016;183(8):715-28.

Naghshi S, Sadeghi O, Willett WC, Esmaillzadeh A. Dietary intake of total, animal, and plant proteins and risk of all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. BMJ. 2020;370:m2412. 

Qi XX, Shen P. Associations of dietary protein intake with all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2020;30(7):1094-1105. 

Razavi AC, Bazzano LA, He J, Whelton SP, et al. Consumption of animal and plant foods and risk of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction: the Bogalusa Heart Study. ESC Heart Fail. 2020;7(5):2700-2710. 

Seidelmann SB, Claggett B, Cheng S, et al. Dietary carbohydrate intake and mortality: a prospective cohort study and meta-analysis. Lancet Public Health. 2018;3(9):e419-e428.

Shang X, Scott D, Hodge AM, et al. Dietary protein intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study and a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104(5):1352-1365.

Song M, Fung TT, Hu FB, et al. Association of Animal and Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality. JAMA Intern Med. 2016;176(10):1453-1463.

Virtanen HEK, Koskinen TT, Voutilainen S, et al. Intake of different dietary proteins and risk of type 2 diabetes in men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Br J Nutr. 2017;117(6):882-893.

Virtanen HEK, Voutilainen S, Koskinen TT, et al. Dietary proteins and protein sources and risk of death: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2019;109(5):1462-1471. 

Weder S, Hoffmann M, Becker K, et al. Energy, Macronutrient Intake, and Anthropometrics of Vegetarian, Vegan, and Omnivorous Children (1⁻3 Years) in Germany (VeChi Diet Study). Nutrients. 2019;11(4):832. 

World Health Organization. Cancer: Carcinogenicity of the consumption of red meat and processed meat. October 26, 2015.

Wu J, Zeng R, Huang J, et al. Dietary Protein Sources and Incidence of Breast Cancer: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies. Nutrients. 2016;8(11):730. 

Yang C, Pan L, Sun C, et al. Red Meat Consumption and the Risk of Stroke: A Dose-Response Meta-analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2016;25(5):1177-1186.

Zhong VW, Van Horn L, Greenland P, et al. Associations of Processed Meat, Unprocessed Red Meat, Poultry, or Fish Intake With Incident Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality. JAMA Intern Med. 2020;180(4):503-512. 

References for Chapter 7. Global Protein: A Planet in Peril

Chinese Academy of Nutrition. The Chinese Dietary Guidelines. Statement: About the official version of the Chinese Resident Balanced Diet Pagoda (2016) – Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents (

FAO and WHO. 2019. Sustainable healthy diets – Guiding principles. Rome. 2019/ Sustainable healthy diets: guiding principles (

Fischer, Carlos G, and Tara Garnett. Plates, Pyramids, and Planets: Developments in National Healthy and Sustainable Dietary Guidelines : a State of Play Assessment. , 2016.

Health Canada. Canada’s Dietary Guidelines. Ottawa: Health Canada; 2019. What are Canada’s Dietary Guidelines? – Canada’s Food Guide

Roser M, Ritchie H, Rosado P. Food Supply. Published online at OurWorldInData.Org. Retrieved from:

Shukla PR, Skea J, Slade R, Diemen R Van, Haughey E, Malley J, Pathak M, Portugal Pereira J(eds.) Technical Summary, 2019. In: Climate Change and Land: an IPCC special report on climate change, desertification, land degradation, sustainable land management, food security, and greenhouse gas fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. Special Report on Climate Change and Land — IPCC site

Swiss Food Pyramid. Société Suisse de Nutrition (SSN). 2016.

Willett W, Rockström J, Loken B, et al. Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT-Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems. Lancet. 2019;393(10170):447-492. 

References for Chapter 8. Protein During Pregnancy and Lactation

American Academy of Pediatrics. Where We Stand: Soy Formulas –

Baroni L, Goggi S, Battaglino R, et al. Vegan Nutrition for Mothers and Children: Practical Tools for Healthcare Providers. Nutrients. 2018;11(1):5. 

Capuano E. The behavior of dietary fiber in the gastrointestinal tract determines its physiological effect. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017;57(16):3543-3564. 

Carter JP, Furman T, Hutcheson HR. Preeclampsia and reproductive performance in a community of vegans. South Med J. 1987;80(6):692-7.

Elango R, Ball RO. Protein and Amino Acid Requirements during Pregnancy. Adv Nutr. 2016 Jul 15;7(4):839S-44S.

Hergenrather J, Hlady G, Wallace B, Savage E. Pollutants in breast milk of vegetarians. N Engl J Med. 1981;304(13):792. 

Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. Washington (DC): National Academies Press; 2005. 

Pistollato F, Sumalla Cano S, et al. Plant-Based and Plant-Rich Diet Patterns during Gestation: Beneficial Effects and Possible Shortcomings. Adv Nutr. 2015;6(5):581-91.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. FoodData Central, 2019.

WHO/FAO/UNU. Protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition. Report of a joint WHO/FAO/UNU Expert Consultation. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 2007;935:103–33.

References for Chapter 9. Infants and Toddlers (Birth to Three Years)

Fang X, Wang L, Wu C, et al. Sex Hormones, Gonadotropins, and Sex Hormone-binding Globulin in Infants Fed Breast Milk, Cow Milk Formula, or Soy Formula. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1).

Fanni D, Ambu R, Gerosa C, et al. Aluminum exposure and toxicity in neonates: A practical guide to halt aluminum overload in the prenatal and pAaronatal periods. World J Pediatr. 2014;10(2):101-107.

Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (macronutrients). Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2005.

Melina V, Craig W, Levin S. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016 Dec;116(12):1970-1980. 

Patel JK, Rouster AS. Infant Nutrition Requirements and Options. [Updated 2020 Aug 14]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from:

Reed KE, Camargo J, Hamilton-Reeves J, Kurzer M, Messina M. Neither soy nor isoflavone intake affects male reproductive hormones: An expanded and updated meta-analysis of clinical studies. Reprod Toxicol. 2021;100:60-67. 

Sinai T, Ben-Avraham S, Guelmann-Mizrahi I, et al. Consumption of soy-based infant formula is not associated with early onset of puberty. Eur J Nutr. 2019;58(2):681-687.

Testa I, Salvatori C, Di Cara G, et al. Soy-Based Infant Formula: Are Phyto-Oestrogens Still in Doubt? Front Nutr. 2018;5.

Weder S, Hoffmann M, Becker K, Alexy U, Keller M. Energy, Macronutrient Intake, and Anthropometrics of Vegetarian, Vegan, and Omnivorous Children (1⁻3 Years) in Germany (VeChi Diet Study). Nutrients. 2019;11(4):832. 

Zhang Z, Adelman AS, Rai D, Boettcher J, Lőnnerdal B. Amino acid profiles in term and preterm human milk through lactation: a systematic review. Nutrients. 2013;5(12):4800-21. 

References for Chapter 10. Children and Teens (Ages 4-18)

Alexy U, Fischer M, Weder S, et al. Nutrient Intake and Status of German Children and Adolescents Consuming Vegetarian, Vegan or Omnivore Diets: Results of the VeChi Youth Study. Nutrients. 2021;13(5):1707.

Cheng G, Buyken AE, Shi L, et al. Beyond overweight: nutrition as an important lifestyle factor influencing timing of puberty. Nutr Rev. 2012;70(3):133-52. 

Melina V, Craig W, Levin S. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016 Dec;116(12):1970-1980. 

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. FoodData Central, 2019. fdc.nal.usda.go 

References for Chapter 11. Protein for Plant-Based Athletes

Barnard ND, Goldman DM, Loomis JF, et al. Plant-Based Diets for Cardiovascular Safety and Performance in Endurance Sports. Nutrients. 2019;11(1):130. 

Berrazaga I, Micard V, Gueugneau M, Walrand S. The Role of the Anabolic Properties of Plant- versus Animal-Based Protein Sources in Supporting Muscle Mass Maintenance: A Critical Review. Nutrients. 2019;11(8):1825. 

Blancquaert L, Baguet A, Bex T, et al. Changing to a vegetarian diet reduces the body creatine pool in omnivorous women, but appears not to affect carnitine and carnosine homeostasis: a randomised trial. Br J Nutr. 2018;119(7):759-770. 

Burke DG, Chilibeck PD, Parise G, et al. Effect of creatine and weight training on muscle creatine and performance in vegetarians. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35(11):1946-55. 

Caruso J, Charles J, Unruh K, et al. Ergogenic effects of β-alanine and carnosine: proposed future research to quantify their efficacy. Nutrients. 2012;4(7):585-601.

Chapman S, Chung HC, Rawcliffe AJ, et al. Does Protein Supplementation Support Adaptations to Arduous Concurrent Exercise Training? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis with Military Based Applications. Nutrients. 2021;13(5):1416.

Clark A, Mach N. Exercise-induced stress behavior, gut-microbiota-brain axis and diet: a systematic review for athletes. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016;13:43.

DE Salles Painelli V, Nemezio KM, Pinto AJ, et al. High-Intensity Interval Training Augments Muscle Carnosine in the Absence of Dietary Beta-alanine Intake. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2018;50(11):2242-2252.

Delimaris I. Adverse Effects Associated with Protein Intake above the Recommended Dietary Allowance for Adults. ISRN Nutr. 2013:126929.

Dolan E, Swinton PA, Painelli VS, et al. A Systematic Risk Assessment and Meta-Analysis on the Use of Oral β-Alanine Supplementation. Adv Nutr. 2019;10(3):452-463. 

Elango R, Chapman K, Rafii M, Ball RO, Pencharz PB. Determination of the tolerable upper intake level of leucine in acute dietary studies in young men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96(4):759-67.

Elango R, Rasmussen B, Madden K. Safety and Tolerability of Leucine Supplementation in Elderly Men. J Nutr. 2016;146(12):2630S-2634S. 

Fouré A, Bendahan D. Is Branched-Chain Amino Acids Supplementation an Efficient Nutritional Strategy to Alleviate Skeletal Muscle Damage? A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2017 Sep 21;9(10):1047. 

Gorissen SHM, Crombag JJR, Senden JMG, et al. Protein content and amino acid composition of commercially available plant-based protein isolates. Amino Acids. 2018;50(12):1685-1695. 

Institute of Medicine 2005. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Jackman SR, Witard OC, Philp A, et al. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Ingestion Stimulates Muscle Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis following Resistance Exercise in Humans. Front Physiol. 2017;8:390. 

Jäger R, Kerksick CM, Campbell BI, et al. International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: protein and exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017;14:20.

Kamei Y, Hatazawa Y, Uchitomi R, Yoshimura R, Miura S. Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Function by Amino Acids. Nutrients. 2020;12(1):261.

Kerksick CM, Arent S, Schoenfeld BJ, et al. International society of sports nutrition position stand: nutrient timing. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017;14:33. 

Mangano KM, Sahni S, Kiel DP, et al. Dietary protein is associated with musculoskeletal health independently of dietary pattern: the Framingham Third Generation Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;105(3):714-722. 

Mariotti F, Gardner CD. Dietary Protein and Amino Acids in Vegetarian Diets-A Review. Nutrients. 2019;11(11):2661. 

Messina M, Lynch H, Dickinson JM, Reed KE. No Difference Between the Effects of Supplementing With Soy Protein Versus Animal Protein on Gains in Muscle Mass and Strength in Response to Resistance Exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2018;28(6):674-685. 

National Institutes of Health. Office of Dietary Supplements. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet.  Exercise and Athletic Performance March 29, 2021. Available at:

Nie C, He T, Zhang W, Zhang G, Ma X. Branched Chain Amino Acids: Beyond Nutrition Metabolism. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(4):954. 

Rogerson D. Vegan diets: practical advice for athletes and exercisers. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017;14:36.

Schoenfeld BJ, Aragon AA. How much protein can the body use in a single meal for muscle-building? Implications for daily protein distribution. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018;15:10. 

Thomas DT, Erdman KA, Burke LM. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016;116(3):501-528. 

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. FoodData Central, 2019.

Wolfe RR. Branched-chain amino acids and muscle protein synthesis in humans: myth or reality? J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017;14:30. 

Wolfe RR. Branched-chain amino acids and muscle protein synthesis in humans: myth or reality? J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017;14:30. 

References for Chapter 12. Energetic Elders

Arnal MA et al. Protein pulse feeding improves protein retention in elderly women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Jun;69(6):1202-8.

Barclay RD et al. The Role of the IGF-1 Signaling Cascade in Muscle Protein Synthesis and Anabolic Resistance in Aging Skeletal Muscle. Front Nutr. 2019 Sep 10;6:146

Bauer J et al. Evidence-based recommendations for optimal dietary protein intake in older people: a position paper from the PROT-AGE Study Group. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2013 Aug;14(8):542-59.

Bonjour J-P. Protein intake and bone health. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2011 Mar;81(2-3):134-42.

Borack MS et al. Efficacy and Safety of Leucine Supplementation in the Elderly. J Nutr. 2016 Dec;146(12):2625S-2629S.

Bouillanne O et al. Impact of protein pulse feeding on lean mass in malnourished and at-risk hospitalized elderly patients: A randomized controlled trial. Clin Nutr 2013;32:186e192.

Burd NA et al. Anabolic resistance of muscle protein synthesis with aging. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews. 2013 41, 169–173.

Chrysohoou C et al. Longevity and diet. Myth or pragmatism? Maturitas. 2013 Dec;76(4):303-7.

Crous-Bou M et al. Plant-Rich Dietary Patterns, Plant Foods and Nutrients, and Telomere Length. Adv Nutr. 2019 Nov 1;10(Suppl_4):S296-S303.

Cruz-Jentoft AJ et al. Sarcopenia. Lancet. 2019 Jun 29;393(10191):2636-2646.

Cynober L et al. Proposals for Upper Limits of Safe Intake for Arginine and Tryptophan in Young Adults and an Upper Limit of Safe Intake for Leucine in the Elderly. J Nutr. . 2016 Dec;146(12):2652S-2654S.

Ekmekcioglu C. Nutrition and longevity – From mechanisms to uncertainties.  Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2020;60(18):3063-3082.

Ganapathy A et al. Nutrition and Sarcopenia—What Do We Know? Nutrients. 2020 Jun; 12(6): 1755.

Hsu E. Plant-based diets and bone health: sorting through the evidence. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2020 Aug;27(4):248-252.

Huang J et al. Association Between Plant and Animal Protein Intake and Overall and Cause-Specific Mortality. JAMA Intern Med. 2020 Sep 1;180(9):1173-1184.

Katsanos CS et al. A high proportion of leucine is required for optimal stimulation of the rate of muscle protein synthesis by essential amino acids in the elderly. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Aug;291(2):E381-7.

Kim 1-Y. Update on maximal anabolic response to dietary protein. Clin Nutr. 2018 April ; 37(2): 411–418.

 Li Y et al. Healthy lifestyle and life expectancy free of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2020 Jan 8;368:l6669.

Messina M et al. No Difference Between the Effects of Supplementing With Soy Protein Versus Animal Protein on Gains in Muscle Mass and Strength in Response to Resistance Exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2018 Nov 1;28(6):674-685.

Papadopoulou SK. Sarcopenia: A Contemporary Health Problem among Older Adult Populations Nutrients. 2020 May 1;12(5):1293.

Papadopoulou SK et al. Exercise and Nutrition Impact on Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia—The Incidence of Osteosarcopenia: A Narrative Review. Nutrients. 2021 Dec; 13(12): 4499.

Rizzoli R et al. The role of dietary protein and vitamin D in maintaining musculoskeletal health in postmenopausal women: a consensus statement from the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO). Maturitas. 2014 Sep;79(1):122-32.

Song M et al. Association of Animal and Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality. JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Oct 1;176(10):1453-1463.

Statista. U.S. – seniors as a percentage of the population 1950-2050.

Thalacker-Mercer A. Protein and amino acids for skeletal muscle health in aging. Adv Food Nutr Res. 2020;91:29-64. (Review).

The Clean Label Project.

Wilkinson DJ et al. The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function: Measurement and physiology of muscle fibre atrophy and muscle fibre loss in humans. Ageing Res Rev. 2018 Nov; 47: 123–132.

Xu Z et al. The effectiveness of leucine on muscle protein synthesis, lean body mass and leg lean mass accretion in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Nutrition (2015), 113, 25–34

References for Chapter 13. The Plant-Based Plate, Tips, and Menus

Amreim K et al. Vitamin D deficiency 2.0: an update on the current status worldwide. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2020 Nov;74(11):1498-1513.

Bikle D.D. Vitamin D: Production, Metabolism and Mechanisms of Action. Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA):, Inc.; 2000. 2021 Dec 31.

Davis B et al. Becoming Vegan: Comprehensive Edition. Book Publishing Co, 2014.

Davis B et al. Becoming Vegan: Express Edition. Book Publishing Co, 2013.

ESHA Research. The Food Processor Nutrition Analysis Software.

Oldways Whole Grains Council. Cooking Whole Grains. 2022.

US Department of Agriculture. Food Data Central. 2022

Zugrav C-A et al. Efficacy of supplementation with methylcobalamin and cyancobalamin in maintaining the level of serum holotranscobalamin in a group of plant-based diet (vegan) adults. Exp Ther Med. 2021 Sep;22(3):993.

Chapters 14. The Protein Powered Kitchen and Chapter 15. Recipes

Burns-Whitmore B, Froyen E, Heskey C, Parker T, San Pablo G. Alpha-Linolenic and Linoleic Fatty Acids in the Vegan Diet: Do They Require Dietary Reference Intake/Adequate Intake Special Consideration? Nutrients. 2019 Oct 4;11(10):2365. 

Grootveld M, Percival BC, Leenders J, Wilson PB. Potential Adverse Public Health Effects Afforded by the Ingestion of Dietary Lipid Oxidation Product Toxins: Significance of Fried Food Sources. Nutrients. 2020 Apr 1;12(4):974. 

ESHA Research. The Food Processor Nutrition Analysis Software.

Health Canada. Canada’s Dietary Guidelines. 2019.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Food and Nutrition Board; Committee to Review the Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium; Oria M, Harrison M, Stallings VA, editors. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2019 Mar 5. 

US Department of Agriculture. Food Data Central. 2022

U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2020-2025. 9th Edition. December 2020. Available at

World Health Organization. 
Guideline: Sugars Intake for Adults and Children. World Health Organization Copyright (c) World Health Organization; Geneva, Switzerland: 2015.